P-value is considered to be one of the most important concepts in statistics. Most scientists rely on the p-value when working on research projects. This value is used to check whether some hypothesis is correct or not. Scientists typically choose a range of values that express the normal results when data is not co-related. The p-value enables scientists to know how close they are to the results.

**Calculating p-value manually**

Follow these steps:

**1.** Find the expected results for the experiment you are doing

**2.** Calculate, then find out the results you have observed from the experiment. Determine how much deviation from the expected results counts as significant, the degree of freedom

**3.** Using a chi-square, compare the first expected and observed results.

**4.** Find the significance level

**5.** Using the chi-square, approximate your p-value

Using Google Sheets enables you to avoid the risk of getting wrong results or using false calculations. You can double-check if you have the correct values or see whether you have used the right formulas. Using this method requires calculating and considering doing it with a pen or paper.

**Using Google Sheets**

First, make two sets of data, compare the data sets, and check whether there is a statistical significance between the two. Using an example, let’s compare data for a certain coach. This is about the client’s number of pushes and pull-ups that the coach provided. The T- TEST function will compare the two sets of data. The syntax of the function is;

TTEST (arrau1, array2, tails, type) but you use; T.TEST (array1, array 2, tails, type) too. Both of these syntaxes refer to one function.

**Array 1 **represents the first set of data, i.e., the pushes for the client

**Array 2 **represents the second set of data, i.e., the pull-ups for the client.

**Tails **are the number of tails that are used for distribution. There are two options for this; **1-one – tailed distribution 2-two- and tailed distribution.
**

A type **is an integer **number that can be paired with a 1, 2, or 3 variance T-Test. Follow the simple steps now that you know the meaning of the elements in the formula.

**1. **Select a column that you want to calculate the p-Value

**2.** Name the column you have chosen TTEST and display functions

**3.** Select the empty column that you want p- values to be shown, then type in the formula you need

**4.** In this case, enter **=TTSET (A2:A7, B2:B7, 1, 3). A2:A7 is the starting and end of your first column.** Hold the cursor in the first position, A2, then drag this to the bottom of the column

**5.** Google Sheets automatically updates your formula

**6.** Put a comma to your formula, then follow the same steps for the second column.

**7.** Enter the tails and type elements, separating them with commas

**8.** Press Enter

The results will appear in the column where you have typed the formula.